This is a theme issue of Nordregio News, offering you an overview of industrial symbiosis in the Nordic countries. By browsing through this issue you will get a picture of what it is, why has it become a hot topic, what motivates the industries to get involved and what interesting results we have found through our case studies.
This issue of Nordregio News is all about industrial symbiosis, more commonly known as the use of waste or by-products from one company as resources for another company. The development of industrial symbiosis is often associated with geographic proximity, but it is not a necessary prerequisite. Nor is industrial symbiosis limited to physical resource exchange. It can also include networking to enhance eco-innovation and new business opportunities. With its long tradition of cooperation and environmental awareness the Nordic Region has excellent preconditions for developing industrial symbiosis. Kalundborg in Denmark was a pioneer in the field when it started in 1961, long before the term industrial symbiosis came into use in 1989. Similarly, the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy has boosted activities at the national scale, and Finnish Industrial Symbiosis System (FISS) model was developed by Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra and a Finnish state-owned company Motiva to bring together the producers and users of residual resources.